( Einstein and the existence of God )
Firstly, I'm pretty sure this is a myth. Secondly, Einstein's comment about quantum physics - "God does not play dice" - was actually used to try and demonstrate why quantum theory was wrong, but yet experimental evidence proves quantum theory is right.
True, we can't know if the professor has a brain unless we cut open his skull and check, just like we can't know if Schrodinger's Cat is dead or alive until we open the box. But we can observe the effects of the professor having a brain - that he is living and talking - much in the same way we can observe the effects of adding a second slit in the double slit experiment, even though we can't observe the process of a photon passing through one of the holes.
I'm not even an atheist, but this argument bugs me. Everything Einstein says about cold being the absence of heat and darkness being the absence of light is true, but you can't apply that to God. God is an abstract concept that can't be measured - heat and light aren't. You can have varying degrees of heat and light, you can't have varying degrees of God or faith. That's a personal thing, and just because on person manages to interpret this argument as proof of God, it doesn't mean everyone will because it is subjective and not empirical.
It also bugs me how people think that saying that the student was Albert Einstein lends this argument more validity. It doesn't - it's probably a myth that this was Einstein anyway, and even if it's not, Einstein was wrong about a lot of things. True, he was a genius when it comes to the photoelectric effect and the theory of relativity, but he fluffed up by his own admission with his cosmological constant and the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics proved to be right despite Einstein's insistence it was wrong.
Seriously, I can think of plenty of philosophical arguments in support of the existence of God, but I really hate this one. For what it’s worth, I hate the professor’s arguments about “Is God good?” as well, because again it’s entirely subjective and isn’t so much about proving the existence of God as whether or not God is a good thing. But either way, I wish people wouldn’t quote this to support the existence of God. Keep philosophical and theological debate in the realm of metaphysics and don’t try bringing in actual physics to support your argument.